Flammer Syndrome: Discovery and Associated Pathologies

Frequent, but not compulsory, symptoms of subjects with Flammer syndrome


Historical background of the discovery of Flammer Syndrome

Under the directory of Prof. Josef Flammer, the Department of Ophthalmology, University of Basel, carried out research in the field of ocular blood flow over a number of decades. This was done in an interdisciplinary context.

Eur Heart J. 2013 May;34(17):1270-8. doi10.1093/eurheartj/eht023. Epub 2013 Feb 10.

The eye and the heart

Flammer J, Konieczka K, Bruno RM, Virdis A, Flammer AJ, Taddei S

The focus of this research was less in the field of arteriosclerosis and its risk factors but rather on vascular regulation and dysregulation which also influence retinal venous pressure and play a role in the pathogenesis of retinal vein occlusion.

EPMA J. 2015 Oct 26;6:21. doi: 10.1186/s13167-015-0043-1. eCollection 2015.

Retinal venous pressure: the role of endothelin

Flammer J, Konieczka K

Of particular clinical interest, however, is primary vascular dysregulation (PVD).

EPMA J. 2013 Jun 7;4(1):14. doi: 10.1186/1878-5085-4-14.

The primary vascular dysregulation syndrome: implications for eye diseases

Flammer J, Konieczka K, Flammer AJ

PVD together with a set of additional signs and symptoms is now called Flammer Syndrome.

EPMA J. 2014 Jul 8. doi: 10.1186/1878-5085-5-11.

Flammer syndrome

Konieczka K, Ritch R, Traverso CE, Kim DM, Kook MS, Gallino A, Golubnitschaja O, Erb C, Reitsamer HA, Kida T, Kurysheva N, Yao K

Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2016 Dec;233(12):1331-1336. doi: 10.1055/s-0042-118881.

Phenomenology and Clinical Relevance of the Flammer Syndrome

Konieczka K, Flammer J

The discovery of Flammer Syndrome has recently been summarized:

EPMA Journal 2017 doi:10.1007/s13167-017-0090-xX

The discovery of the Flammer syndrome: a historical and personal perspective

Flammer J, Konieczka K

The underlying mechanism is a special form of a vascular endotheliopathy.

EPMA Journal (2017) 8: 99. doi: 10.1007/s13167-017-0099-1.

Endothelial dysfunction in cardiovascular disease and Flammer syndrome—similarities and differences

Barthelmes J, Nägele MP, Ludovici V, Ruschitzka F, Sudano I, Flammer AJ

FS plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the glaucomatous neuropathy, particularly in patients with normal tension glaucoma,

EPMA Journal (2017) 8: 111. doi: 10.1007/s13167-017-0097-3.

Relationship between normal tension glaucoma and Flammer syndrome

Konieczka K, Choi HJ, Koch S, Fankhauser F, Schoetzau A, Kim DM

but also for other eye diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa

Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2016 Apr;233(4):448-52. doi: 10.1055/s-0041-111802.

Increased Prevalence of Flammer Syndrome in Patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa

Konieczka K, Koch S, Schoetzau A, Todorova MG

and vascular occlusions,

BMC Ophthalmol. 2017 Mar 14;17(1):23. doi: 10.1186/s12886-017-0416-4.

Choroidal infarction in a glaucoma patient with Flammer syndrome: a case report with a long term follow-up

Terelak-Borys B, Grabska-Liberek I, Piekarniak-Wozniak A, Konieczka K

BMC Anesthesiol. 2016 Feb 4. doi: 10.1186/s12871-016-0176-3.

The trilateral link between anaesthesia, perioperative visual loss and Flammer syndrome

Bojinova RI, Konieczka K, Meyer P, Todorova MG

and increase of retinal venous pressure.

BMC Ophthalmol. 2014 Oct 13;14:121. doi: 10.1186/1471-2415-14-121.

The effect of flammer-syndrome on retinal venous pressure

Fang L, Baertschi M, Mozaffarieh M

But Flammer Syndrome also plays a role in Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy,

Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2017 Apr;234(4):584-587. doi: 10.1055/s-0042-119564.

Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy, Normal Tension Glaucoma, and Flammer Syndrome: Long Term Follow-up of a Patient

Konieczka K, Flammer J, Sternbuch J, Binggeli T, Fraenkl S

in Multiple Sclerosis,

EPMA J. 2016 Jun 15. doi: 10.1186/s13167-016-0062-6.

Multiple sclerosis and primary vascular dysregulation (Flammer syndrome)

Konieczka K, Koch S, Binggeli T, Schoetzau A, Kesselring J

in breast cancer,

EPMA Journal (2017) 8: 129. doi: 10.1007/s13167-017-0089-3.

Breast cancer and Flammer syndrome: any symptoms in common for prediction, prevention and personalised medical approach?

Zubor P, Gondova A, Polivka J, Kasajova P, Konieczka K, Danko J, Golubnitschaja O

and its metastasis.

EPMA Journal (2017) 8: 141. doi: 10.1007/s13167-017-0092-8.

“Pre-metastatic niches” in breast cancer: are they created by or prior to the tumour onset? “Flammer Syndrome” relevance to address the question

Bubnov R, Polivka J, Zubor J, Konieczka K, Golubnitschaja O

Although the treatment of Flammer Syndrome is still in its infancy, more and more therapeutic approaches are being developed.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015 Jun;253(6):935-9. doi: 10.1007/s00417-015-3001-7.

The effect of nifedipine on retinal venous pressure of glaucoma patients with the Flammer-Syndrome

Fang L, Turtschi S, Mozaffarieh M

Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2016 Apr;233(4):387-90. doi: 10.1055/s-0042-102619.

Unexpected Effect of Calcium Channel Blockers on the Optic Nerve Compartment Syndrome

Konieczka K, Todorova MG, Bojinova RI, Binggeli T, Chackathayil TN, Flammer J

EPMA Journal (2017) 8: 171. doi: 10.1007/s13167-017-0091-9

Traditional medicine as a potential treatment for Flammer syndrome

Kikuchi A, Shiga Y, Takayama S, Arita R, Maekawa S, Kaneko S, Himori N, Ishii T, Nakazawa T

EPMA Journal (2017) 8: 177 doi: 10.1007/s13167-017-0096-4

Acupuncture benefits for Flammer syndrome in individuals with inherited diseases of the retina

Blechschmidt T, Krumsiek M, Todorova MG

EPMA Journal (2017) 8: 187. doi: 10.1007/s13167-017-0093-7

Nutritional recommendations for individuals with Flammer syndrome

Vahedian Z, Fakhraie G, Bovet J, Mozaffarieh M

The Role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON)

Video presentation: Prof. Dr emer. Josef Flammer